Convict penal settlements

Penal settlements were places of incarceration and punishment for convicts who committed serious offences after reaching New South Wales

Penal settlements were places of incarceration and punishment for convicts who committed serious offences after reaching New South Wales.


Penal colonies provided the:

'most severe "secondary" punishment (short of execution) to be inflicted on convicts'.
(Australian Encyclopaedia, 4th ed., vol. 3, p.49).

Governor Brisbane also viewed their establishment as 'the best means of paving the way for the introduction of free population ....'. (HRA vol. 11, p.604).

During the 1820s penal settlements were used as a means of making transportation more of a deterrent. They came under the control of 'military detachments which had no interest in penal discipline and firmly wished themselves elsewhere'. (Hirst, Convict Society, p.92). Governor Darling introduced detailed regulations for their management and tightened up conditions considerably. (Fletcher, Ralph Darling, pp.103-7). This was particularly the case on Norfolk Island, which, under his administration and even more so under Governor Bourke, acquired a reputation for extreme harshness and severity. Women were forbidden to go there and stories of brutality abounded.

Iron’d gangs

'Considerably fewer than 10 per cent of prisoners transported ever saw the inside of a penal settlement and many who did so were there only for short periods'.
(Australian Encyclopaedia, 4th ed., vol. 3, p.49).

Darling believed that many of those sent to these settlements would be more productively employed elsewhere. He placed large numbers of secondary offenders in the iron'd gangs which he used to construct roads leading from Sydney. A.G.L. Shaw estimated that in 1836, '8 percent of male convicts in New South Wales were in a chain gang or on Norfolk Island'. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, p.216). The gangs were used to prevent convicts from escaping. Despite their use a number did escape, some becoming bushrangers

Other settlements

The short-lived settlements of Melville Island (Fort Dundas), 1824-1829; Western Port, 1826-1828, and King George's Sound Settlement, 1826-31 were each established for strategic reasons but were reliant on convict labour while in operation. For Moreton Bay, Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land see the Guide to Convicts and Convict Administration.

Indexes to the records

  • Index to the Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788–1825
  • Joan Reese's NSW Colonial Secretary's In Letters Index to convicts and others, 1826–95, available in the Reading Room
  • Index to letters sent re convicts, 1826–May 1855, compiled by Joan Reese and available in the Reading Room
  • NRS-922 Colonial Secretary's Indexes and Registers, 1826–1900, available in the Reading Room

A list of record series


See also the under various settlements below.

Penal Settlement Regulations, 1829
Board to consider a Code of General Regulations for the conduct and discipline of Penal Settlements
[5/1129 No. 23], Reel 600
Supreme Court: Miscellaneous papers and documents — Proclamations re establishment of Penal Settlements
15 Aug 1826

Cockatoo Island Penal Establishment

In 1839 owing to orders to discontinue transportation from New South Wales to Norfolk Island, and Lieutenant Governor Franklin's refusal to receive the transportees in Van Diemen's Land, Governor Gipps formed an establishment on Cockatoo Island for the reception of prisoners removed from Norfolk Island. (HRA vol. 20, p.217). The deep waters surrounding the island made it secure and it was sufficiently close to Sydney for the authorities to maintain a watchful eye. Convicts recently sentenced in the colony were separated from those who had returned from Norfolk Island, by placing them in separate wards at night. (Kerr, Design for convicts, pp.75-6).

Initially the convicts on Cockatoo Island constructed grain silos built from the solid sandstone bedrock on the Island. Construction of a dry dock began in 1851 and convict labour was used to service visiting vessels of the Royal Navy. In the early years the dockyard was administered by the prison Superintendent, who reported to the Governor through the Colonial Secretary. After responsible government was granted in 1856, the Superintendent reported to the Legislative Council and the Premier.

Report and recommendations into administration of Cockatoo Island

Following complaints about the administration of the Island a Board of Inquiry looked into the management of Cockatoo Island. Its report issued in 1858 concluded that the Island was not satisfactorily combining its twin objectives of acting as a place of punishment and a means of employment for convicts.

The report also recommended that Superintendent, Thomas Ormsby, be replaced, as he had disregarded regulations, and had made improper use of convict labour. (Votes and Proceedings of NSW Legislative Assembly 1858, vol. 2, p.243). As a result Gother Kerr Mann, who was the Civil Engineer at Cockatoo Island, was appointed Engineer-in-Chief, and Superintendent of Cockatoo Island. By 1865 only those convicts sentenced to the roads or public works were imprisoned on the Island.

Closure of Cockatoo Island penal settlement, 1869

In July 1869 the Executive Council approved the breaking up of the penal and engineering establishment on Cockatoo Island and the transfer of the prisoners to Darlinghurst Gaol. On 21 October 1869 all the prisoners remaining on Cockatoo Island were removed to the gaol.

Closure of Cockatoo Island penal settlement, 1869
[4/7325], Reel 606
Returns of the convict establishment at Cockatoo Island
Returns of prisoners under sentence of transportation at Cockatoo Island
The returns note name, ship and year of arrival, whether first or second conviction, details of colonial conviction, Governor's decision and gaol.
- Oct 1844–Feb 1845, Apr 1845–Jan 1847, Sep 1847 [X747], Reel 2720
- Oct 1847–Mar 1848, May–Jul, Sep, Oct, Dec 1848 [X748], Reel 2720
Monthly reports of the Visiting Magistrate, often including returns of prisoners
- 1849–53 [4/1149.3], Reel 608
- 1851–55 [4/1156], Reel 609
- 1856–58 [4/719.1], Reel 609
- Apr 1859 [4/1162.1], Reel 610
- 1859–61 [4/752], Reel 610
- Dec 1861–Jun, Sep 1862–Dec 1864 [4/739], Reel 611. 1865–66 [4/753.1], Reel 611
1849–1855, 1865–1866
Task work regulations for convicts at Cockatoo Island
These are regulations and schedules setting out payment for task work performed by convicts at Cockatoo Island.
Mar 1853
Papers re 1849 Inquiry and reports on administration at Cockatoo Island
Report of inquiries into management at Cockatoo Island
Cockatoo Island – administration of the penal establishment and prison discipline
[4/3891], Reel 3012
Copies of letters to officers of the Royal Engineers and the Superintendent of Cockatoo Island
Copies of letters principally to the Commanding Royal Engineer and other officers on engineering works. From 1842 letters are also addressed to the Superintendent of Cockatoo Island and from 1844 to the Newcastle Stockade.
7 Jan 1840–19 Aug 1846
[4/6514 part-6518], Reels 605-606
Cockatoo Island Penal Establishment, Copies of letters sent, 1841–65, May 1859–65, and letters received, 1841–May 1843
- 1841–1846 [4/6514], Reel 605. (From 19 Nov 1844 only letters signed by the Superintendent of Cockatoo Island are in this volume)
- 19 Nov 1844–1851[4/6515], Reel 605. Index in back of volume
- 1851–1854 [4/6516], Reel 606. Index in front of volume
- May 1859–Dec 1861 [4/6517], Reel 606
- 1862–1865 [4/6518], Reel 606
1841-1965, May 1859-1865, 1841-May 1843
[2/8285], Reel 2664
Cockatoo Island, Alphabetical record of prisoners admitted
This volume is an archival estray which has been badly damaged.
May 1839–Jun 1852
[X819], Reel 608
Cockatoo Island, Entrance Book
The volume notes name, ship, when and where tried, sentence, offence, details of discharge etc.
1 Jan 1848–30 Jun 1852
[X819], Reel 608
Record of prisoners on Cockatoo Island prior to Jan 1848
< Jan 1848
NRS-2083[2/8285], Reel 2664
Register of individual prisoners on Cockatoo IslandThis register records each convict's particulars on a separate page – name, ship, colonial trials and convictions, date and from whence received at Cockatoo Island, positions held while there (overseer etc.), punishments, tickets of leave, remissions, and details of discharge.The volume is an archival estray which has been badly damaged.
Transportation register (colonial)
Each entry has a full history of the prisoner from the date of arrival at Cockatoo Island. This includes arrival, death, discharge, punishments, subsequent convictions, and the dates. Details of conviction and offence, physical description, religion and trade are also noted.
- Apr 1847–Jan 1849 [4/6571], Reel 1258. Index in front of volume
- Feb 1852–Aug 1853 [4/6572], Reel 1258
- Aug 1853–Feb 1855 [4/6573], Reel 607
- Apr 1857–Mar 1860 [4/6574], Reel 607
- Jul 1868–Jul 1869 [4/6575], Reel 607. Index in front of volume
1847–1849, 1852–1855, 1857–1860, 1868–1869
[4/6509], Reel 608
Transportation register (imperial)
For each prisoner, the register shows name and aliases, ship and year of arrival, original sentence (rarely), place and date of colonial sentence and offence. Then are recorded the various offences of the prisoner during their period, or periods, of imprisonment including dates of entrance and discharge, punishments, issue or cancellation of tickets of leave and death.
June 1851–Feb 1863
[7/3713], Reel 611
Visitors book 
4 Sep 1851–31 Dec 1864
[4/4540], Reel 605
General index to convicts
The volume indexes prisoners on the island, providing details of name and ship of arrival, when tried, offence, sentence, when discharged and any observations.
This volume is arranged alphabetically by letter and records: name; ship; religion; original sentence; colonial conviction – when tried, sentence, commuted sentence; received – date, from whence; discharged – date, where to; and remarks.
This volume is an archival estray, and has been badly damaged.
Printed Sources
Board of inquiry into Cockatoo Island 1857. (Votes and Proceedings of Legislative Assembly, 1858 Vol.2 p.243)

Fort Wellington (Raffles Bay) Settlement

The settlement was established 18 June 1827 in what is now the Northern Territory and was abandoned in August 1829. It suffered the usual problems of the early northern settlements such as difficulties in supplying provisions, 'unhealthy' climate and disappointing trading opportunities with the Malays. (HRA Vol 14, pp410-411).

CSIL 28/1280 in [4/1966] and 29/8680 in [4/4/2051]
Letters re abandonment of settlement
Settlements at Raffles Bay and on Melville Island 
[4/2060.2], Reel 703
Letters received by the Colonial Secretary re Fort Wellington, returns, lists etc
[4/10799.2], Reel 3035
Return of Public Labour at Fort Wellington, Raffles Bay
1 Jun-18 Jul 1829
[4/3731], Reel 703
Copies of letters sent to Fort Wellington. There is an index in front of the volume.
19 May 1827–23 Jul 1829
[4/4550], Reel 2974
Register of public labour performed daily at Fort Wellington
Detailed record of the jobs performed by the officers and privates of the 39th Regiment and the Marines and by the Crown Prisoners.
The volume also contains Returns of work performed by the sawyers at Fort Wellington, 14 Sep 1828–1 Apr 1829; the shingle splitters, 17 Sep–14 Oct 1828; the slab splitters, 17 Sep 1828–18 Feb 1829; and an account of tinman’s manufactures, 6 Oct–20 Nov 1828
24 Apr 1828–30 May 1829
[4/4551], Reel 712
Copies of returns sent by CommandantAmong the returns included are:Crown prisoners at the settlement, 24 Apr–10 May 1828, 21 Sep–24 Feb 1829, 25 Feb 1829Corporal punishments, 14 Sep 1828–24 Feb 1829, 25 Feb–24 Aug 1829Deaths, 21 Sep 1828–26 Feb 1829, 27 Feb–24 Aug 1829Population, 26 Feb 1829, 24 Aug 1829
24 Apr 1828–24 Aug 1829

King George's Sound Settlement

The settlement was established 30 December 1826. It was transferred to the Swan River when James Stirling, as Lieutenant Governor, founded the colony of Western Australia in June 1829.

CSIL 26/7233 and 26/7241 in [4/1907]
Convicts selected for King George's Sound
[4/2059.1, 4/2092]
King George's Sound settlement
[4/3776], Reel 712
Copies of letters sent to King George’s Sound
Copies of letters to the Commandant and other officers at the settlement. The volume begins with instructions to Major Lockyer of the 57th Regiment to establish a settlement which continued until handed over to Western Australia in 1831. Also includes a list of convicts sent to the settlement, 1826–31. The list records the name, ship, conviction and sentence, trade, age native place and personal description.
There is an index in front of the volume.
4 Nov 1826–11 Jan 1831
[4/4551], Reel 712
Copies of returns sent by Commandant
- Deaths, 3 Dec 1829–12 Feb 1830, 13 Feb–10 Sep 1830
- Corporal Punishments, 3 Dec 1829–12 Feb 1830, 13 Feb–10 Sep 1830
- Crown prisoners at settlement, 13 Feb–10 Sep 1830
- Trials of convicts serving under sentence before the Bench of Magistrates, 19 Feb 1830–22 Feb 1831
- Detailed list of Crown Prisoners, 1 Jan 1830
- Names of prisoners recommended weekly by the overseer for diligence, etc., 8 Oct 1830–11 Feb 1831
3 Dec 1829–22 Feb 1831

Melville Island (Fort Dundas) Settlement

The settlement was established in 1824 on the north coast of Australia and abandoned in 1829.

[4/1802], Reels 748 & 6066
Letters received by the Colonial Secretary from Melville Island, including
- Return of sick prisoners, Nov 1824–Apr 1825 [4/1802 p.59],Reels 748 & 6066
- List of convicts who volunteered for Melville Island and forwarded by the ship Phillip Dundas 28 Nov 1825 [4/1802 p.95], Reels 748 & 6066 
with CSIL 26/8055 in [5/7951]
Report on Melville Island by Major Campbell
10 Oct 1826
Settlements at Raffles Bay and on Melville Island
Includes reports on the state of the settlement by the Commandants, particularly Major Campbell
[4/1917.9], Reel 2867
Returns of stores received and issued
25 Sep–24 Dec 1826
[4/3792], Reels 748 & 6019
Copies of letters sent to Melville Island
The volume begins with a letter of instructions to Captain Morris Barlow commanding the military forces on the expedition to the north west coast of New Holland. Subsequent letters are addressed to the commandant and other officers at the settlement. Includes a List of convicts at the settlement, 1824–29. The list shows name, original conviction, calling, vessel transported by, number and date returned. There is an index to the convicts in front of the volume.
14 Aug 1824–11 Feb 1829
[4/2772.4], Reel 2801
Proceedings before the Bench of Magistrates, Melville Island – Examinations of prisoners
This bundle records name, charge and date.
15 Dec 1827–6 Mar 1829

Newcastle Penal Settlement

In 1801 Governor King established, at Coal River, a small settlement of soldiers and convicts to mine coal. It was abandoned in 1802, but in March 1804 Newcastle was opened as a place of punishment for 34 Irish convicts who had taken part in the Castle Hill rebellion and was placed under the command of Lieutenant Menzies. (HRA vol. 4, p.597). Newcastle became the principal place of secondary punishment from 1804 to 1824 and the convicts sent there were employed in coal mining, cedar getting and lime burning.

A free settlement in 1823

In 1820, after the discovery of land routes from the Hawkesbury increased the likelihood of convicts escaping and free settlers arriving, Macquarie proposed to remove the penal settlement and open the district to private settlement. (HRA vol. 10, p.43). It was not until 1823, after Governor Brisbane had arrived, that the convicts were sent to Port Macquarie and Newcastle was proclaimed a free settlement. (Australian Encyclopaedia, 4th ed., vol. 3, p.122). Convicts continued to be employed in the mines for some time.

Guide to the location of shipping lists of convicts sent to Newcastle, 1811–22, 1825

[4/1718], Reels 689 & 6023
Monthly returns of punishments
The returns show for each punishment the name of the individual, the ship in which transported, master's name, number of lashes ordered and by whom, number of lashes inflicted and the offence.
Includes a list of prisoners permitted to return to Sydney from Newcastle, 20 Aug 1822.
Dec 1810–Oct 1825
[4/1804-13], Reels 2185-87 6066-6068
Letters received by the Colonial Secretary from Newcastle
[2/8303], Reels 693 & 6025
Returns of births, deaths and marriages, Jul 1818–1825, burials 1828
[2/8319 pp.35-52], Reel 2278
Returns of prisoners received and discharged at Newcastle
18 Feb–24 Mar 1827
[X708 pp.112-128], Reel 662
Return of convicts tried before the Bench of Magistrates
Jan, Jul 1835, Feb–Sep 1836
[4/3490A, 4/3492], Reel 6003
Copies of letters sent to Van Diemen's Land, Newcastle and Norfolk Island
Other copies available as follows: of [4/3490A], microfilm copy Reel 2288, COD 223A; of [4/3492], Reels 898 and 764.
Copies of letters written by the Governor and his Secretary to officials and individuals usually residing at, or intending to go to, these places.
6 Jan 1810–16 Dec 1813
[4/3493-520; of 4/3493-3516 part], Reels 6004-6016Additional copy of [4/3493-509] and [4/3511-20] at Reels 1028-1041; [4/3510] at Reel 2649
Copies of letters sent within the Colony
Copies of letters addressed to officials, corporate bodies and individuals in the Colony and its out-settlements. Most of the letters are written by the Private Secretary, or from 1821, the Colonial Secretary, but there are a number written by the Governor. There are some letters here addressed to the Governor from the Colonial Secretary.
The volumes contain various returns and lists, such as returns of persons applying to be married; lists of convicts being sent to Van Diemen's Land, Port Macquarie and Newcastle; and lists of the distribution of convicts upon arrival to settlers in country districts
- List of runaways from Newcastle, 31 Oct 1814 [4/3493 p.388], Reel 6004
- List of runaways from the lime burners at Newcastle, 21 Nov 1814 [4/3493 p.388], Reel 6004
1 Jan 1814–30 Jan 1827
[4/8543], COD 120
Register of convicts at Newcastle against whom a complaint had been lodged
The register records date, name, ship, offence and punishment.
14 Jul 1818–1823
Bench Books
- Dec 1823–1825 (Mitchell Library) ML Mss.2482
- 1826–27 Mar 1827 (Mitchell Library) ML Mss.2482
- 13 May 1833–13 Mar 1835 [SZ80], Reel 2721
- 9 Jun 1835–11 Mar 1836 [4/5608], Reels 2721-2722
- 13 Dec 1836–Dec 1838 [4/5607], Reel 2722
24 Dec 1823-1838
[4/8543], COD 220
Register of convicts’ applications for certificates of freedom,
The register records name, ship, where and when tried, sentence, date of certificate, native place, trade or calling, age, height, complexion, hair, eyes, and additional notes.
Dec 1826–Aug 1831
[4/8543], COD 120
Return of trials before the Bench at Newcastle
The register records date, name, ship, term, employment, name of accuser and witnesses, charge, punishment or acquittal.
3 May 1826–30 Dec 1834
Copies of orders issued by the Commandant
This volume contains copies of orders issued by the various Commandants of the Newcastle settlement: Captain James Wallis, Captain James Morisset and Captain H. Gillman.
There is also a testimonial written in Lachlan Macquarie's hand on 7 Aug 1818 approving the orders issued by Captain James Wallis. At the back of the volume there is a “Registry of Houses and Land at the Settlement of Newcastle” which gives: name, where situated, when granted, by whom granted, how disposed of and general remarks (ie. whether sold, by whom occupied).
17 Jun 1816–26 Apr 1824

Port Macquarie Penal Settlement

Ideally isolated

In 1820 Governor Macquarie had written to London explaining that if many more convicts were transported he would find it difficult to employ them. He explained that the government gangs 'cannot with due regard to their care and superintendence be much more increased'. Under these circumstances a new penal settlement was necessary. He favoured Port Macquarie, which had been reported on favourably by the Surveyor General, and was sufficiently isolated to make it ideal as a place of punishment for convicts of the worst character. (HRA vol. 10, p.366).

In March 1821 Francis Allman was appointed commandant of the new penal establishment. (HRA vol. 10, p.480). The Governor informed him that the principal object was to 'secure a secondary place of punishment for the worst description of convicts, especially those convicted of crimes after their arrival in the colony'. (HRA vol. 10, p.480).

By October 1821 there were 92 convicts at Port Macquarie. (HRA vol. 10, p.575). Most were employed on government projects or by officials under supposed orders. Convicts were grouped according to the level of their skill and the severity of their punishment. Those assigned to hard labour were placed in chain gangs, or employed in agriculture and public works. By 1825 the number of convicts had increased to 1500. However, Governor Brisbane had decided that Port Macquarie was no longer suitable for penal purposes now that pastoralists were moving into the region.

Penal settlement closed to make way for free settlers

In 1828 Governor Darling informed the Colonial Office that only 530 convicts remained at Port Macquarie, and that by 1829 only 290 convicts would remain. (HRA vol. 18, p.522). The Governor believed that Port Macquarie should be opened to free settlers and that the penal establishment should be abolished. In November 1828 he was authorised to close the establishment and on 15 August 1830 a proclamation was issued inviting free settlers into the area. (Fletcher, Ralph Darling, p.103).

Port Macquarie remained a convict outpost after it was opened to free people and was maintained as a centre for invalids, specials, and lunatics throughout the 1830s and 1840s. Following the cessation of the transportation of convicts from Britain to New South Wales in 1840, the military detachment was removed from Port Macquarie in 1847 and the invalids and lunatics were removed to the Liverpool Asylum.

Guide to the location of the shipping lists of convicts sent to and from Port Macquarie, 1821-37

[2/8302], Reel 692
Copies of marriage returns
Port Macquarie Inquiry
[X709 p.72], Reel 662
Returns of convicts tried before the Bench
Nov 1835, Jan, Feb, Nov 1836
[4/2443.4], Reel 827
Returns of applications from convicts for the publication of banns
The returns show name, age, status (widower, widow, bachelor or spinster), ship and year of arrival, sentence, free or bond, present service, character and result of application.
[4/7326], Reel 827
Returns of the convict establishment at Port Macquarie
1835, 1838–1839, 1842, 1844–1847
Letters received by the Colonial Secretary from the Commandant
- 1821-1826 [4/1815-17], Reels 6068-6069, 1247
- 1826 [4/1915.1]
- 1828 [4/2007.2]
1821–1826, 1826, 1828
[CSIL with 32/4488 in 4/2207 p.18], Reel 826; COD 226
Return of prisoners assigned and on loan to the civil and military Officers
Monthly returns of male and female prisoners assigned at Port Macquarie in 1833.
- 33/3886 Apr [4/2207], Reel 826; COD 226 pp.20-21
- 33/7710 Sep [4/2088], Reel 827
- 34/481 Oct [4/2256.1], Reel 826; COD 226 pp.25-26
7 Sep 1832
Details of prisoners received and discharged
- 32/4488 Jun 1832 [4/2207], Reel 826; COD 226 pp.10-17
- 34/481 Oct 1833 [4/2256.1], Reel 826; COD 226 p.20
5–10 Feb 1827, 25 Feb–1 Mar 9–14 Jun, 27 Oct–2 Nov 1828
[CSIL with 34/481 in 4/2256.1 p.26], Reel 826; COD 226
Details of females in the Factory
The return records name, ship and remarks.
31 Oct 1833
[CSIL with 34/481 in 4/2256.1 p.27], Reel 826; COD 226
Returns of corporal punishments inflictedThe returns record name, ship, crime, sentence, number inflicted and in whose presence.
Oct 1833
NRS-905[4/2256.1 p.28], Reel 826; COD 226
List of Crown Prisoners at Port Macquarie, effective and noneffective, mechanics and labourers, employed at public building and public labour
4 Jan 1834
Copies of letters to Port Macquarie
Copies of letters to the Commandant, other officers and prisoners at the settlement. In each volume is a list of convicts sent to Port Macquarie, the first two arranged chronologically and the last alphabetically. There is an index to the first two lists. The lists show for each convict: name, original conviction, calling, vessel transported by, number, who they replaced or was replaced by, colonial conviction, date of transportation to Port Macquarie and date returned.
- 28 Jun 1822–7 Oct 1825 Index [4/3864], Reels 6019, 824
- 14 Sep 1825–23 Jul 1830 Index [4/3865], Reels 6019 (pp.1-27 only), 824
- 23 Jul 1830–12 Jun 1834 Alphabetical [4/3866], Reel 825
28 Jun 1822–12 Jun 1834
[4/5647], Reel 2653
Register of inquests and magisterial inquiries at Port Macquarie
Records evidence given and verdict. There is an index in the front of the volume.
Jan 1839–Sep 1855
[4/5636-39], Reels 2723-24
Bench books
11 Mar 1828–22 Nov 1837
[9/2671], Reel 2661
Police Magistrate — Copies of letters received or from the Colonial Secretary
9 Jun 1832–25 May 1836
[9/2672], Reel 2661
Police Magistrate — Copies of letters sent to the Colonial Secretary
5 Jul 1832–26 Apr 1837
[2/8322], Reel 2724-2725
Bench of Magistrates — Copies of letters received
11 Sep 1832–11 May 1837
[4/5647], Reel 2653
Port Macquarie — Deposition book (inquests)
[4/5645], Reel 2661
Copies of letters sent by the Commandant
19 Apr 1821–7 Feb 1826
[4/6287], Reel 2661
Copies of letters sent and received by the Superintendent of Agriculture
22 Sep 1823–18 Oct 1828
[4/5642], Reel 825
Daily returns of public labour performed by Crown prisoners at Port Macquarie
10 Sep 1830–30 Mar 1831
[4/5646], Reel 827
Copies ofmonthly returns of convicts
Feb 1835–Jun 1838
[4/5646], Reel 827
Daily returns of convicts
5 Feb–22 Mar 1836
[4/5644], Reel 2661
Commandant’s daily diary (meteorological, convicts, occurrences etc.)
17 Jan 1830–20 Sep 1833
[4/5641 part]
Agricultural Establishment, Daily return of labour performed by Crown prisoners
13 Apr 1829-22 Jan 1831

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